ask how life on Earth emerged, we find two different answers:
One is that living things emerged by evolution.
According to the theory of evolution, which makes this claim,
life began with the first cell, which itself emerged by chance
or by some hypothetical natural laws of "self-organization."
Again as a result of chance and natural laws, this living
cell developed and evolved, and by taking on different forms
gave rise to the millions of species of life on Earth.
The second answer is "Creation." All living things
came into existence by being created by an intelligent Creator.
When life and the millions of forms it takes, which could
not possibly have come into existence by chance, were first
created, they had the same complete, flawless, and superior
design that they possess today. The fact that even the simplest-looking
forms of life possess such complex structures and systems
that could never have come about by chance and natural conditions
is a clear proof of this.
Outside these two alternatives, there is no third
claim or hypothesis today regarding how life emerged. According
to the rules of logic, if one answer to a question with two
alternative possible answers is proved to be false, then the
other must be true. This rule, one of the most fundamental
in logic, is called disjunctive inference (modus tollendo
In other words, if it is demonstrated that living
species on Earth did not evolve by chance, as the theory of
evolution claims, then that is clear proof that they were
formed by a Creator. Scientists who support the theory of
evolution agree that there is no third alternative. One of
these, Douglas Futuyma, makes the following statement:
Organisms either appeared
on the earth fully developed or they did not. If they did
not, they must have developed from pre-existing species
by some process of modification. If they did appear in a
fully developed state, they must indeed have been created
by some omnipotent intelligence. 4
The fossil record provides the answer to the
evolutionist Futuyma. The science of fossils (paleontology)
shows that all living groups emerged on Earth at different
times, all at once, and perfectly formed.
All the discoveries from excavations and studies
over the last hundred years or so show that, contrary to evolutionists'
expectations, living things came into existence suddenly,
in perfect and flawless form, in other words that they were
"created." Bacteria, protozoa, worms, molluscs, and other
invertebrate sea creatures, arthropods, fish, amphibians,
reptiles, birds, and mammals all appeared suddenly, with complex
organs and systems. There are no fossils that show any so-called
"transition" between them. Paleontology bears the same message
as other branches of science: Living things did not evolve,
but were created. As a result, while evolutionists were trying
to prove their unrealistic theory, they by their own hands
produced proof of creation.
Robert Carroll, an expert on vertebrate paleontology
and a committed evolutionist, comes to admit that the Darwinist
hope has not been satisfied with fossil discoveries:
Despite more than a hundred
years of intense collecting efforts since the time of Darwin's
death, the fossil record still does not yield the picture
of infinitely numerous transitional links that
he expected. 5
The Cambrian Explosion
is enough to tear down the theory of evolution
The world of living things is divided by biologists into such
fundamental groups as plants, animals, fungae etc. These are
then subdivided into different "phyla." When designating these
phyla, the fact that each one possesses completely different
physical structures should always be borne in mind. Arthropoda
(insects, spiders, and other creatures with jointed legs),
for instance, are a phylum by themselves, and all the animals
in the phylum have the same fundamental physical structure.
The phylum called Chordata includes those creatures
with a notochord or, most commonly, a spinal column. All the
large animals such as fish, birds, reptiles, and mammals that
we are familiar in daily life are in a subphylum of Chordata
known as vertebrates.
EXPLOSION TEARS UP THE EVOLUTIONARY
"TREE OF LIFE"
above illustration is taken from The Book of Life, published
in 2001 under the editorship of the late Stephen Jay
Gould, one of the world's most prominent evolutionists.
The illustration explains which different groups of
animals emerged in which periods. On the left, the various
geological periods are listed, starting 2,500 million
years ago. The coloured columns show the major phyla
of animals. (The colours in the columns refer to different
When we examine this figure, the miracle
of the Cambrian Explosion is obvious. There is only
one phylum before the Cambrian Age (the Cnidaria, which
include jellyfish and corals). In the Cambrian Age,
however, 13 completely different phyla suddenly emerged.
This picture is the opposite of the theory
of evolution, because evolution maintains that living
phyla increased in stages, like the branches of a tree.
The evolutionists who drew up the figure
try to gloss over this gap by talking about "theoretical
links." We can see pale lines at the bottom of the figure
joining the coloured boxes (in other words, genuine
phyla of which fossil remains have been found). These
are imaginary links required by the theory of evolution,
but of which no evidence has ever been found.
If the theory of evolution were true, if
these links were real and not imaginary, then fossils
of transitional groups should have been discovered.
Despite all the fossil research of the last 150 years,
the fact that these links are still just a dream shows
that the theory of evolution is nothing but a fantasy.
One of the interesting fossil creatures found in the
Burgess Shale, a Cambrian rock formation.
fossil from the Cambrian Age.
There are around 35 different phyla of animals,
including the Mollusca, which include soft-bodied
creatures such as snails and octopuses, or the Nematoda, which
include diminutive worms. The most important feature of these
phyla is, as we touched on earlier, that they possess totally
different physical characteristics. The categories below the
phyla possess basically similar body plans, but the phyla
are very different from one another.
Hallucigenia: One of the creatures
that suddenly emerged in the Cambrian Age. This and
many other Cambrian fossils have hard, sharp spines
to protect them from attack. One thing that evolutionists
cannot account for is how these creatures should have
such an effective defense system when there were no
predators around. The lack of predators makes it impossible
to explain these spines in terms of natural selection.
So how did these differences come about?
Let us first consider the Darwinist hypothesis.
As we know, Darwinism proposes that life developed from
one single common ancestor, and took on all its varieties
by a series of tiny changes. In that case, life should first
have emerged in very similar and simple forms. And according
to the same theory, the differentiation between, and growing
complexity in, living things must have happened in parallel
According to Darwinism, life must be like a tree,
with a common root, subsequently splitting up into different
branches. And this hypothesis is constantly emphasized in
Darwinist sources, where the concept of the "tree of life"
is frequently employed. According to this tree concept, one
phylum must first emerge, and then the other phyla must slowly
come about with minute changes over very long periods of time.
That is the theory of evolution's claim. But
is this really how it happened?
Definitely not. Quite the contrary,
animals have been very different and complex since the moment
they first emerged. All the animal phyla known today
emerged at the same time, in the middle of the geological
period known as the Cambrian Age. The Cambrian Age
is a geological period estimated to have lasted some 65 million
years, approximately between 570 to 505 million years ago.
But the period of the abrupt appearance of major animal groups
fit in an even shorter phase of the Cambrian, often referred
to as the "Cambrian explosion." Stephen C. Meyer, P. A. Nelson,
and Paul Chien, in an article based on a detailed literature
survey, dated 2001, note that the "Cambrian explosion occurred
within an exceedingly narrow window of geologic time, lasting
no more than 5 million years."6
||One of the complex invertebrates
that suddenly emerged in the Cambrian Age some 550 million
years ago were the fossil trilobites above. Another feature
of trilobites that poses a quandary for evolutionists
is their compound eye structure. Trilobites' very advanced
eyes possessed a multi-lens system. That system is exactly
the same as that found in many creatures today, such as
spiders, bees, and flies. The sudden emergence of such
a complex eye structure in a creature that lived 500 million
years ago is enough on its own to consign evolutionists'
theories based on chance to the waste bin.
Before then, there is no trace in the fossil
record of anything apart from single-celled creatures and
a few very primitive multicellular ones. All animal phyla
emerged completely formed and all at once, in the very short
period of time represented by the Cambrian Explosion. (Five
million years is a very short time in geological terms!)
The fossils found in Cambrian rocks belong to
very different creatures, such as snails, trilobites, sponges,
jellyfish, starfish, shellfish, etc. Most of the creatures
in this layer have complex systems and advanced structures,
such as eyes, gills, and circulatory systems, exactly the
same as those in modern specimens. These structures are at
one and the same time very advanced, and very different.
Prof. Philip Johnson
Richard Monastersky, a staff writer at Science
News journal, states the following about the Cambrian explosion,
which is a deathtrap for evolutionary theory:
A half-billion years ago,
...the remarkably complex forms of animals we see
today suddenly appeared. This moment, right at the
start of Earth's Cambrian Period, some 550 million years ago,
marks the evolutionary explosion that filled the seas with
the world's first complex creatures.7
Phillip Johnson, a professor at the University
of California at Berkeley who is also one of the world's foremost
critics of Darwinism, describes the contradiction between
this paleontological truth and Darwinism:
Darwinian theory predicts a
"cone of increasing diversity," as the first living organism,
or first animal species, gradually and continually diversified
to create the higher levels of taxonomic order. The animal
fossil record more resembles such a cone turned upside down,
with the phyla present at the start and thereafter
Many complex invertebrates such
as starfish and jellyfish emerged suddenly some 500
million years ago with no so-called evolutionary ancestor
before them. In other words, they were created. They
were no different from those alive today.
As Phillip Johnson has revealed, far from its
being the case that phyla came about by stages, in reality
they all came into being at once, and some of them even became
extinct in later periods. The meaning of the emergence of
very different living creatures all of a sudden and perfectly
formed, is creation, as evolutionist Futuyma has also accepted.
As we have seen, all the available scientific discoveries
disprove the claims of the theory of evolution and reveal
the truth of creation.
Douglas J. Futuyma, Science on Trial, Pantheon Books,
New York, 1983, p. 197.
Robert L. Carroll, Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate
Evolution, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 25. (emphasis
Stephen C. Meyer, P. A. Nelson, and Paul Chien, The Cambrian
Explosion: Biology's Big Bang, 2001, p. 2.
Richard Monastersky, "Mysteries of the Orient," Discover,
April 1993, p. 40. (emphasis added)
Phillip E. Johnson, "Darwinism's Rules of Reasoning," in Darwinism:
Science or Philosophy by Buell Hearn, Foundation for Thought
and Ethics, 1994, p. 12. (emphasis added)