Since the genetic material in
the first man contained all the characteristics of the
various races, parts of this came to dominate in various
societies, and thus the human races formed.
Some evolutionists try to put the existence of
different races forward as evidence for evolution. In fact,
this claim is more frequently expressed by amateur evolutionists
who have a less than sufficient knowledge of the theory they
The thesis proposed by those who defend this
claim is based on the question, "If, as divine sources say,
life began with one man and one woman, how could different
races have emerged?" Another way of putting it is: "Since
Adam and Eve's height, colour, and other features were those
of only two people, how could races with entirely different
features have emerged?"
In fact, the problem lying beneath all these
questions or objections is an insufficient knowledge of the
laws of genetics, or the ignoring of them. In order to understand
the reason for the differences between the races in today's
world, it will be necessary to have some idea of the subject
of "variation," which is closely linked to this question.
Variation, a term used in genetics, refers to
a genetic event that causes the individuals or groups of a
certain type or species to possess different characteristics
from one another. The source of this variation is the genetic
information possessed by the individuals within that species.
As a result of breeding between those individuals, that genetic
information comes together in later generations in different
combinations. There is an exchange of genetic material between
the mother's and father's chromosomes. Genes thus get mixed
up with one another. The result of this is a wide variety
of individual features.
The different physical features between human
races are due to variations within the human race. All the
people on Earth carry basically the same genetic information,
yet some have slanted eyes, some have red hair, some have
long noses, and others are short of stature, all depending
on the extent of the variation potential of this genetic information.
In order to understand the variation potential,
let us consider a society in which brunette, brown-eyed people
predominate over blond, blue-eyed individuals. As a result
of the two communities intermingling and marrying over time,
new generations which are brunette but blue-eyed will be seen.
In other words, the physical characteristics of both groups
will come together in subsequent generations and produce new
appearances. When one imagines other physical characteristics
mixing in the same way, it is clear that a great variety will
The important point that must be understood here
is this: There are two genes that rule every physical feature.
One may dominate the other, or they may both influence matters
to an equal extent. For instance, two genes determine the
colour of a person's eyes. One comes from the mother, the
other from the father. Whichever gene is the dominant one,
the individual's eye colour will be determined by that gene.
In general, dark colours dominate lighter ones. In this way,
if a person possesses genes for brown and for green eyes,
his eyes will be brown because the brown eye gene is dominant.
However, the recessive green colour can be passed down the
generations and emerge at a later time. In other words, parents
with brown eyes can have a green-eyed child. That is because
that colour gene is recessive in both parents.
This law applies to all other physical features
and the genes which govern them. Hundreds, or even thousands,
of physical features, such as the ears, nose, the shape of
the mouth, height, bone structure, and organ structure, shape,
and characteristics, are all controlled in the same way. Thanks
to this, all the limitless information in the genetic structure
can be passed on to subsequent generations without becoming
outwardly visible. Adam (pbuh), the first human being, and
Eve, were able to pass the rich information in their genetic
structure on to subsequent generations even though only a
part of it was reflected in their physical appearance. Geographical
isolation that had happened over human history has led to
an atmosphere where different physical features came together
in different groups. Over a long period of time, this led
to different groups having different bone structures, skin
colour, height, and skull volumes. This eventually led to
the different races.
However, this long period did not change one
thing, of course. No matter what their height, skin colour
and skull volume, all races are part of the human species.