complex structure of the living cell was unknown in Darwin's
day and at the time, ascribing life to "coincidences and natural
conditions" was thought by evolutionists to be convincing
enough. Darwin had proposed that the first cell could easily
have formed "in some warm little pond."238
One of Darwin's supporters, the German biologist Ernst Haeckel,
examined under the microscope a mixture of mud removed from
the sea bed by a research ship and claimed that this was a
nonliving substance that turned into a living one. This so-called
"mud that comes to life," known as Bathybius haeckelii ("Haeckel's
mud from the depths"), is an indication of just how simple
a thing life was thought to be by the founders of the theory
The technology of the twentieth century has delved
into the tiniest particles of life, and has revealed that
the cell is the most complex system mankind has ever confronted.
Today we know that the cell contains power stations producing
the energy to be used by the cell, factories manufacturing
the enzymes and hormones essential for life, a databank where
all the necessary information about all products to be produced
is recorded, complex transportation systems and pipelines
for carrying raw materials and products from one place to
another, advanced laboratories and refineries for breaking
down external raw materials into their useable parts, and
specialized cell membrane proteins to control the incoming
and outgoing materials. And these constitute only a small
part of this incredibly complex system.
In Darwin's time,
it was thought that the cell had a very simple structure.
Darwin's ardent supporter Ernst Haeckel suggested that
the left mud pulled up from the bottom of the sea could
produce life by itself.
W. H. Thorpe, an evolutionist
scientist, acknowledges that "The most elementary type of
cell constitutes a 'mechanism' unimaginably more complex than
any machine yet thought up, let alone constructed, by man."239
A cell is so complex that even the high level
of technology attained today cannot produce one. No effort
to create an artificial cell has ever met with success. Indeed,
all attempts to do so have been abandoned.
The theory of evolution claims that this system-which
mankind, with all the intelligence, knowledge and technology
at its disposal, cannot succeed in reproducing-came into existence
"by chance" under the conditions of the primordial earth.
Actually, the probability of forming a cell by chance is about
the same as that of producing a perfect copy of a book following
an explosion in a printing house.
Sir Fred Hoyle
The English mathematician
and astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle made a similar comparison in
an interview published in Nature magazine on November
12, 1981. Although an evolutionist himself, Hoyle stated that
the chance that higher life forms might have emerged in this
way is comparable to the chance that a tornado sweeping through
a junk-yard might assemble a Boeing 747 from the materials
therein.240 This means that it
is not possible for the cell to have come into being by chance,
and therefore it must definitely have been "created."
One of the basic reasons why the theory
of evolution cannot explain how the cell came into existence
is the "irreducible complexity" in it. A
living cell maintains itself with the harmonious co-operation
of many organelles. If only one of these organelles fails
to function, the cell cannot remain alive. The cell does not
have the chance to wait for unconscious mechanisms like natural
selection or mutation to permit it to develop. Thus, the first
cell on earth was necessarily a complete cell possessing all
the required organelles and functions, and this definitely
means that this cell had to have been created.
Darwin, Life and Letter of Charles Darwin, vol. II,
From Charles Darwin to J. Do Hooker, March 29, 1863
239 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species
Revisited, Thomas Nelson Co., Nashville, 1991, pp. 298-99.
240 "Hoyle on Evolution," Nature,
vol. 294, November 12, 1981, p. 105.