we may conclude with a very important point in relation to
the basic logic of probability calculations, of which we have
already seen some examples. We indicated that the probability
calculations made above reach astronomical levels, and that
these astronomical odds have no chance of actually happening.
However, there is a much more important and damaging fact
facing evolutionists here. This is that under natural conditions,
no period of trial and error can even start, despite the astronomical
odds, because there is no trial-and-error mechanism in nature
from which proteins could emerge.
The calculations we gave above to demonstrate
the probability of the formation of a protein molecule with
500 amino acids are valid only for an ideal trial-and-error
environment, which does not actually exist in real life. That
is, the probability of obtaining a useful protein is "1" in
10950 only if we suppose that there exists an imaginary
mechanism in which an invisible hand joins 500 amino acids
at random and then, seeing that this is not the right combination,
disentangles them one by one, and arranges them again in a
different order, and so on. In each trial, the amino acids
would have to be separated one by one, and arranged in a new
order. The synthesis should be stopped after the 500th amino
acid has been added, and it must be ensured that not even
one extra amino acid is involved. The trial should then be
stopped to see whether or not a functional protein has yet
been formed, and, in the event of failure, everything should
be split up again and then tested for another sequence. Additionally,
in each trial, not even one extraneous substance should be
allowed to become involved. It is also imperative that the
chain formed during the trial should not be separated and
destroyed before reaching the 499th link. These
conditions mean that the probabilities we have mentioned above
can only operate in a controlled environment where there is
a conscious mechanism directing the beginning, the end, and
each intermediate stage of the process, and where only "the
selection of the amino acids" is left to chance. It is clearly
impossible for such an environment to exist under natural
conditions. Therefore the formation of a protein in the natural
environment is logically and technically impossible.
Since some people are unable to take a broad
view of these matters, but approach them from a superficial
viewpoint and assume protein formation to be a simple chemical
reaction, they may make unrealistic deductions such as "amino
acids combine by way of reaction and then form proteins."
However, accidental chemical reactions taking place in a nonliving
structure can only lead to simple and primitive changes. The
number of these is predetermined and limited. For a somewhat
more complex chemical material, huge factories, chemical plants,
and laboratories have to be involved. Medicines and many other
chemical materials that we use in our daily life are made
in just this way. Proteins have much more complex structures
than these chemicals produced by industry. Therefore, it is
impossible for proteins, each of which is a wonder of design
and engineering, in which every part takes its place in a
fixed order, to originate as a result of haphazard chemical
Let us for a minute put aside all the impossibilities
we have described so far, and suppose that a useful protein
molecule still evolved spontaneously "by accident." Even so,
evolution again has no answers, because in order for this
protein to survive, it would need to be isolated from its
natural habitat and be protected under very special conditions.
Otherwise, it would either disintegrate from exposure to natural
conditions on earth, or else join with other acids, amino
acids, or chemical compounds, thereby losing its particular
properties and turning into a totally different and useless
What we have been discussing so far is the impossibility
of just one protein's coming about by chance. However, in
the human body alone there are some 100,000 proteins functioning.
Furthermore, there are about 1.5 million species named, and
another 10 million are believed to exist. Although many similar
proteins are used in many life forms, it is estimated that
there must be 100 million or more types of protein in the
plant and animal worlds. And the millions of species which
have already become extinct are not included in this calculation.
In other words, hundreds of millions of protein codes have
existed in the world. If one considers that not even one protein
can be explained by chance, it is clear what the existence
of hundreds of millions of different proteins must mean.
Bearing this truth in mind, it can clearly be
understood that such concepts as "coincidence" and "chance"
have nothing to do with the existence of living things.