As we said
at the beginning, one of the phyla that suddenly emerged in
the Cambrian Age is the Chordata, those creatures with a central
nervous system contained within a braincase and a notochord
or spinal column. Vertebrates are a subgroup of chordates.
Vertebrates, divided into such fundamental classes as fish,
amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, are probably the
most dominant creatures in the animal kingdom.
FISH OF THE CAMBRIAN
Until 1999, the question of whether any vertebrates
were present in the Cambrian was limited to the
discussion about Pikaia. But that year a stunning
discovery deepened the evolutionary impasse regarding
the Cambrian explosion: Chinese paleontologists
at Chengjiang fauna discovered the fossils of two
fish species that were about 530 million years old,
a period known as the Lower Cambrian. Thus, it became
crystal clear that along with all other phyla, the
subphylum Vertebrata (Vertebrates) was also present
in the Cambrian, without any evolutionary ancestors.
The two distinct fish species
of the Cambrian, Haikouichthys ercaicunensis and
Because evolutionary paleontologists
try to view every phylum as the evolutionary continuation
of another phylum, they claim that the Chordata phylum evolved
from another, invertebrate one. But the fact that, as with
all phyla, the members of the Chordata emerged in the Cambrian
Age invalidates this claim right from the very start. The
oldest member of the Chordata phylum identified from the Cambrian
Age is a sea-creature called Pikaia, which with its long body
reminds one at first sight of a worm.75
Pikaia emerged at the same time as all the other species in
the phylum which could be proposed as its ancestor, and with
no intermediate forms between them. Professor Mustafa Kuru,
a Turkish evolutionary biologist, says in his book Vertebrates:
There is no doubt that
chordates evolved from invertebrates. However, the lack
of transitional forms between invertebrates and chordates
causes people to put forward many assumptions.76
If there is no transitional form between chordates
and invertebrates, then how can one say "there is no doubt
that chordates evolved from invertebrates?" Accepting an assumption
which lacks supporting evidence, without entertaining any
doubts, is surely not a scientific approach, but a dogmatic
one. After this statement, Professor Kuru discusses the evolutionist
assumptions regarding the origins of vertebrates, and once
again confesses that the fossil record of chordates consists
only of gaps:
The views stated above
about the origins of chordates and evolution are always
met with suspicion, since they are not based on any fossil
Evolutionary biologists sometimes
claim that the reason why there exist no fossil records regarding
the origin of vertebrates is because invertebrates have soft
tissues and consequently leave no fossil traces. However this
explanation is entirely unrealistic, since there is an abundance
of fossil remains of invertebrates in the fossil record. Nearly
all organisms in the Cambrian period were invertebrates, and
tens of thousands of fossil examples of these species have
been collected. For example, there are many fossils of soft-tissued
creatures in Canada's Burgess Shale beds. (Scientists think
that invertebrates were fossilized, and their soft tissues
kept intact in regions such as Burgess Shale, by being suddenly
covered in mud with a very low oxygen content.78
The theory of evolution assumes that the first
Chordata, such as Pikaia, evolved into fish. However, just
as with the case of the supposed evolution of Chordata, the
theory of the evolution of fish also lacks fossil evidence
to support it. On the contrary, all distinct classes of fish
emerged in the fossil record all of a sudden and fully-formed.
There are millions of invertebrate fossils and millions of
fish fossils; yet there is not even one fossil that is midway
Robert Carroll admits the evolutionist impasse
on the origin of several taxa among the early vertebrates:
We still have no evidence
of the nature of the transition between cephalochordates
and craniates. The earliest adequately known vertebrates
already exhibit all the definitive features of craniates
that we can expect to have preserved in fossils. No fossils
are known that document the origin of jawed vertebrates.79
Another evolutionary paleontologist, Gerald T.
Todd, admits a similar fact in an article titled "Evolution
of the Lung and the Origin of Bony Fishes":
All three subdivisions
of bony fishes first appear in the fossil record at approximately
the same time. They are already widely divergent
morphologically, and are heavily armored. How did they originate?
What allowed them to diverge so widely? How did they all
come to have heavy armor? And why is there no trace of earlier,
ORIGIN OF FISH
The fossil record shows that fish,
like other kinds of living things, also emerged suddenly
and already in possession of all their unique structures.
In other words, fish were created, not evolved.
|Fossil fish called Birkenia
from Scotland. This creature, estimated to be some
420 million years old, is about 4 cm. long.
||Fossil shark of the Stethacanthus
genus, some 330 million years old.
fossil fish from the Santana fossil bed in Brazil.
Group of fossil fish from the Mesozoic Age.
fish approximately 360 million years old from the
Devonian Age. Called Osteolepis panderi, it is about
20 cm. long and closely resembles present-day fish.
Palmer, The Atlas of the Prehistoric World, Discovery
Channel, Marshall Publishing, London, 1999, p. 66.
76 Mustafa Kuru,
Omurgali Hayvanlar (Vertebrates), Gazi University
Publications, 5th ed., Ankara, 1996, p. 21. (emphasis added)
77 Mustafa Kuru,
Omurgali Hayvanlar (Vertebrates), Gazi University
Publications, 5th ed., Ankara, 1996, p. 27.
78 Douglas Palmer,
The Atlas of the Prehistoric World, Discovery Channel,
Marshall Publishing, London, 1999, p. 64.
79 Robert L. Carroll, Patterns and Processes
of Vertebrate Evolution, Cambridge University Press,
1997, pp. 296.
80 Gerald T. Todd, "Evolution of the Lung
and the Origin of Bony Fishes: A Casual Relationship," American
Zoologist, vol. 26, no. 4, 1980, p. 757.