that fish are the ancestors of land-dwelling creatures is
invalidated by anatomical and physiological observations as
much as by the fossil record. When we examine the huge anatomical
and physiological differences between water- and land-dwelling
creatures, we can see that these differences could not have
disappeared in an evolutionary process with gradual changes
based on chance. We can list the most evident of these differences
1- Weight-bearing: Sea-dwelling
creatures have no problem in bearing their own weight in the
sea, although the structures of their bodies are not made
for such a task on land. However, most land-dwelling creatures
consume 40 percent of their energy just in carrying their
bodies around. Creatures making the transition from water
to land would at the same time have had to develop new muscular
and skeletal systems to meet this energy need, and this could
not have come about by chance mutations.
The basic reason why evolutionists imagine the
coelacanth and similar fish to be the ancestors of land-dwelling
creatures is that their fins contain bones. It is assumed
that over time these fins turned into load-bearing feet. However,
there is a fundamental difference between these fish's bones
and land-dwelling creatures' feet. It is impossible for the
former to take on a load-bearing function, as they are not
linked to the backbone. Land-dwelling creatures' bones, in
contrast, are directly connected to the backbone. For this
reason, the claim that these fins slowly developed into feet
Fish remove harmful substances
from their bodies directly into the water, but land
animals need kidneys. For this reason, the scenario
of transition from water to the land requires kidneys
to havbe developed by chance.
However, kidneys possess an exceedingly
complex structure and, what is more, the kidney
needs to be 100 percent present and in complete
working order in order to function. A kidney developed
50, or 70, or even 90 percent will serve no function.
Since the theory of evolution depends on the assumption
that "organs that are not used disappear," a 50
percent-developed kidney will disappear from the
body in the first stage of evolution.
2- Heat retention: On land,
the temperature can change quickly, and fluctuates over a
wide range. Land-dwelling creatures possess a physical mechanism
that can withstand such great temperature changes. However,
in the sea, the temperature changes slowly, and within a narrower
range. A living organism with a body system regulated according
to the constant temperature of the sea would need to acquire
a protective system to ensure minimum harm from the temperature
changes on land. It is preposterous to claim that fish acquired
such a system by random mutations as soon as they stepped
Frogs are born in water, live there for a while, and
finally emerge onto land in a process known as "metamorphosis."
Some people think that metamorphosis is evidence of
evolution, whereas the two actually have nothing to
do with one another.
innovative mechanism proposed by evolution is mutation.
However, metamorphosis does not come about by coincidental
effects like mutation does. On the contrary, this
change is written in frogs' genetic code. In other
words, it is already evident when a frog is first
born that it will have a type of body that allows
it to live on land. Research carried out in recent
years has shown that metamorphosis is a complex process
governed by different genes. For instance, just the
loss of the tail during this process is governed,
according to Science News magazine, by more
than a dozen genes (Science News, July 17,
1999, page 43).
claim of transition from water to land says that fish,
with a genetic code completely designed to allow them
to live in water, turned into land creatures as a
result of chance mutations. However, for this reason
metamorphosis actually tears evolution down, rather
than shoring it up, because the slightest error in
the process of metamorphosis means the creature will
die or be deformed. It is essential that metamorphosis
should happen perfectly. It is impossible for such
a complex process, which allows no room for error,
to have come about by chance mutations, as is claimed
3- Water: Essential to metabolism,
water needs to be used economically due to its relative scarcity
on land. For instance, the skin has to be able to permit a
certain amount of water loss, while also preventing excessive
evaporation. That is why land-dwelling creatures experience
thirst, something that sea-dwelling creatures do not do. For
this reason, the skin of sea-dwelling animals is not suitable
for a nonaquatic habitat.
4- Kidneys: Sea-dwelling organisms
discharge waste materials, especially ammonia, by means of
their aquatic environment: In freshwater fish, most of the
nitrogenous wastes (including large amounts of ammonia, NH3)
leave by diffusion out of the gills. The kidney is mostly
a device for maintaining water balance in the animal, rather
than an organ of excretion. Marine fish have two types. Sharks,
skates, and rays may carry very high levels of urea in their
blood. Shark's blood may contain 2.5% urea in contrast to
the 0.01-0.03% in other vertebrates. The other type, i. e.,
marine bony fish, are much different. They lose water continuously
but replace it by drinking seawater and then desalting it.
They rely more on tubular secretion for eliminating excess
or waste solutes.
Each of these different excretory systems is
very different from those of terrestrial vertebrates. Therefore,
in order for the passage from water to land to have occurred,
living things without a kidney would have had to develop a
kidney system all at once.
5- Respiratory system: Fish
"breathe" by taking in oxygen dissolved in water that they
pass through their gills. They cannot live more than a few
minutes out of water. In order to survive on land, they would
have to acquire a perfect lung system all of a sudden.
It is most certainly impossible that all these
dramatic physiological changes could have happened in the
same organism at the same time, and all by chance.