there are impassable boundaries between very different orders
of reptiles such as snakes, crocodiles, dinosaurs, and lizards.
Each one of these different orders appears all of a sudden
in the fossil record, and with very different structures.
Looking at the structures in these very different groups,
evolutionists go on to imagine the evolutionary processes
that might have happened. But these hypotheses are not reflected
in the fossil record. For instance, one widespread evolutionary
assumption is that snakes evolved from lizards which gradually
lost their legs. But evolutionists are unable to answer the
question of what "advantage" could accrue to a lizard which
had gradually begun to lose its legs, and how this creature
could be "preferred" by natural selection.
An approximately 50 million-year-old
python fossil of the genus Palaeopython.
It remains to say that the
oldest known snakes in the fossil record have no "intermediate
form" characteristics, and are no different from snakes of
our own time. The oldest known snake fossil is Dinilysia,
found in Upper Cretaceous rocks in South America. Robert Carroll
accepts that this creature "shows a fairly advanced stage
of evolution of these features [the specialized features of
the skull of snakes],"97 in other words
that it already possesses all the characteristics of modern
Another order of reptile is
turtles, which emerge in the fossil record together with the
shells which are so characteristic of them. Evolutionist sources
state that "Unfortunately, the origin of this highly successful
order is obscured by the lack of early fossils, although turtles
leave more and better fossil remains than do other vertebrates.
By the middle of the Triassic Period (about 200,000,000 years
ago) turtles were numerous and in possession of basic turtle
characteristics… Intermediates between turtles and cotylosaurs,
the primitive reptiles from which turtles probably sprang,
are entirely lacking."98
Above, a freshwater turtle,
some 45 million years old, found in Germany. On the
right the remains of the oldest known marine turtle.
This 110-million-year-old fossil, found in Brazil,
is identical to specimens living today.
Thus Robert Carroll is also
forced to mention the origin of turtles among the "important
transitions and radiations still poorly known."99
All these types of living things emerged suddenly
and independently. This fact is a scientific proof that they
Carroll, Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, p.
98 Encyclopaedia Britannica Online,
"Turtle - Origin and Evolution."
99 Robert L. Carroll, Patterns and Processes
of Vertebrate Evolution, Cambridge University Press,
1997, pp. 296-97. (emphasis added)