of evolution have recourse to an argument that the second
law of thermodynamics holds true only for "closed systems,"
and that "open systems" are beyond the scope of this law.
This claim goes no further than being an attempt by some evolutionists
to distort scientific facts that invalidate their theory.
In fact, a large number of scientists openly state that this
claim is invalid, and violates thermodynamics. One of these
is the Harvard scientist John Ross, who also holds evolutionist
views. He explains that these unrealistic claims contain an
important scientific error in the following remarks in Chemical
and Engineering News:
...there are no known
violations of the second law of thermodynamics. Ordinarily
the second law is stated for isolated systems, but the
second law applies equally well to open systems.
...there is somehow associated with the field of far-from-equilibrium
phenomena the notion that the second law of thermodynamics
fails for such systems. It is important to make
sure that this error does not perpetuate itself.369
An "open system" is a thermodynamic system in
which energy and matter flow in and out. Evolutionists hold
that the world is an open system: that it is constantly exposed
to an energy flow from the sun, that the law of entropy does
not apply to the world as a whole, and that ordered, complex
living beings can be generated from disordered, simple, and
However, there is an obvious distortion here.
The fact that a system has an energy inflow is not enough
to make that system ordered. Specific mechanisms are needed
to make the energy functional. For instance, a car needs an
engine, a transmission system, and related control mechanisms
to convert the energy in petrol to work. Without such an energy
conversion system, the car will not be able to use the energy
stored in petrol.
The same thing applies in the case of life as
well. It is true that life derives its energy from the sun.
However, solar energy can only be converted into chemical
energy by the incredibly complex energy conversion systems
in living things (such as photosynthesis in plants and the
digestive systems of humans and animals). No living thing
can live without such energy conversion systems. Without an
energy conversion system, the sun is nothing but a source
of destructive energy that burns, parches, or melts.
As can be seen, a thermodynamic system without
an energy conversion mechanism of some sort is not advantageous
for evolution, be it open or closed. No one asserts that such
complex and conscious mechanisms could have existed in nature
under the conditions of the primeval earth. Indeed, the real
problem confronting evolutionists is the question of how complex
energy-converting mechanisms such as photosynthesis in plants,
which cannot be duplicated even with modern technology, could
have come into being on their own.
The influx of solar energy into the world would
be unable to bring about order on its own. Moreover, no matter
how high the temperature may become, amino acids resist forming
bonds in ordered sequences. Energy by itself is incapable
of making amino acids form the much more complex molecules
of proteins, or of making proteins form the much more complex
and organized structures of cell organelles.
369 John Ross,
Chemical and Engineering News, 27 July, 1980, p.
40. (emphasis added)