If we look
carefully at Prigogine and other evolutionists' claims, we
can see that they have fallen into a very important trap.
In order to make evolution fit in with thermodynamics, evolutionists
are constantly trying to prove that a given order can emerge
from open systems.
And here it is important to bring out two key
concepts to reveal the deceptive methods the evolutionists
use. The deception lies in the deliberate confusing of two
distinct concepts: "ordered" and "organized."
We can make this clear with an example. Imagine
a completely flat beach on the seashore. When a strong wave
hits the beach, mounds of sand, large and small, form bumps
on the surface of the sand.
This is a process of "ordering." The seashore
is an open system, and the energy flow (the wave) that enters
it can form simple patterns in the sand, which look completely
regular. From the thermodynamic point of view, it can set
up order here where before there was none. But we must make
it clear that those same waves cannot build a castle on the
beach. If we see a castle there, we are in no doubt that someone
has constructed it, because the castle is an "organized" system.
In other words, it possesses a clear design and information.
Every part of it has been made by an intelligent entity in
a planned manner.
The difference between the sand and the castle
is that the former is an organized complexity, whereas the
latter possesses only order, brought about by simple repetitions.
The order formed from repetitions is as if an object (in other
words the flow of energy entering the system) had fallen on
the letter "a" on a typewriter keyboard, writing "aaaaaaaa"
hundreds of times. But the string of "a"s in an order repeated
in this manner contains no information, and no complexity.
In order to write a complex chain of letters actually containing
information (in other words a meaningful sentence, paragraph
or book), the presence of intelligence is essential.
The same thing applies when a gust of wind blows
into a dusty room. When the wind blows in, the dust which
had been lying in an even layer may gather in one corner of
the room. This is also a more ordered situation than that
which existed before, in the thermodynamic sense, but the
individual specks of dust cannot form a portrait of someone
on the floor in an organized manner.
This means that complex, organized systems can
never come about as the result of natural processes. Although
simple examples of order can happen from time to time, these
cannot go beyond certain limits.
But evolutionists point to this self-ordering
which emerges through natural processes as a most important
proof of evolution, portray such cases as examples of "self-organization."
As a result of this confusion of concepts, they propose that
living systems could develop of their own accord from occurrences
in nature and chemical reactions. The methods and studies
employed by Prigogine and his followers, which we considered
above, are based on this deceptive logic.
However, as we made clear at the outset, organized
systems are completely different structures from ordered ones.
While ordered systems contain structures formed of simple
repetitions, organized systems contain highly complex structures
and processes, one often embedded inside the other. In order
for such structures to come into existence, there is a need
for intelligence, knowledge, and planning. Jeffrey Wicken,
an evolutionist scientist, describes the important difference
between these two concepts in this way:
are to be carefully distinguished from 'ordered' systems.
Neither kind of system is 'random,' but whereas ordered
systems are generated according to simple algorithms and
therefore lack complexity, organized systems must be assembled
element by element according to an external 'wiring diagram'
with a high information content ... Organization, then,
is functional complexity and carries information.377
Ilya Prigogine-maybe as a result of evolutionist
wishful thinking- resorted to a confusion of these two concepts,
and advertised examples of molecules which ordered themselves
under the influence of energy inflows as "self-organization."
The American scientists Charles B. Thaxton, Walter
L. Bradley and Roger L. Olsen, in their book titled The
Mystery of Life's Origin, explain this fact as follows:
... In each case random
movements of molecules in a fluid are spontaneously replaced
by a highly ordered behaviour. Prigogine, Eigen, and others
have suggested that a similar sort of self-organization
may be intrinsic in organic chemistry and can potentially
account for the highly complex macromolecules essential
for living systems. But such analogies have scant relevance
to the origin-of-life question. A major reason is that they
fail to distinguish between order and complexity...378
And this is how the same scientists explain the
logical shallowness and distortion of claiming that water
turning into ice is an example of how biological order can
It has often been argued
by analogy to water crystallizing to ice that simple monomers
may polymerize into complex molecules such as protein and
DNA. The analogy is clearly inappropriate,
however… The atomic bonding forces draw water molecules
into an orderly crystalline array when the thermal agitation
(or entropy driving force) is made sufficiently small by
lowering the temperature. Organic monomers such
as amino acids resist combining at all at any temperature
however, much less some orderly arrangement.379
Prigogine devoted his whole career to reconciling
evolution and thermodynamics, but even he admitted that there
was no resemblance between the crystallization of water and
the emergence of complex biological structures:
The point is that in
a non-isolated system there exists a possibility for formation
of ordered, low-entropy structures at sufficiently low temperatures.
This ordering principle is responsible for the appearance
of ordered structures such as crystals as well as for the
phenomena of phase transitions. Unfortunately this
principle cannot explain the formation of biological structures.
In short, no chemical or physical effect can
explain the origin of life, and the concept of "the self-organization
of matter" will remain a fantasy.
S. Wicken, "The Generation of Complexity in Evolution: A Thermodynamic
and Information-Theoretical Discussion," Journal of Theoretical
Biology, vol. 77, April 1979, p. 349.
378 Charles B. Thaxton, Walter L. Bradley
& Roger L. Olsen, The Mystery of Life's Origin: Reassessing
Current Theories, 4th edition, Dallas, 1992, p. 151.
379 C. B. Thaxton, W. L. Bradley, and R.
L. Olsen, The Mystery of Life's Origin: Reassessing Current
Theories, Lewis and Stanley, Texas, 1992, p. 120.
380 I. Prigogine, G. Nicolis ve A. Babloyants,
"Thermodynamics of Evolution," Physics Today, November
1972, vol. 25, p. 23. (emphasis added)